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STD Symptoms in Men

On This Page: Symptoms | Incubation Periods | Chlamydia Symptoms | Gonorrhea Symptoms | Herpes Symptoms | HIV/AIDS Symptoms | Syphilis Symptoms | Hepatitis Symptoms | Testing

Many men mistakenly believe that the presence of an STD would be immediately noticeable, but symptoms are often subtle and easily confused with other medical issues. Some common indicators include genital bumps or rashes, discharge, itching in the penile area or testicles, as well as pain during urination or ejaculation; however, these can appear mild at first glance.

It’s crucial to understand that sexually transmitted diseases might not manifest any detectable signs despite active infection. Left unaddressed, STDs can advance silently within one’s body leading to significant and potentially permanent health implications over time—underscoring the importance of regular screenings even when no direct symptoms are evident.

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Common STD symptoms in men:

  • Discharge from the Penis: This can be clear, white, yellow, or green in color, and is commonly associated with gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis.
  • Pain During Urination: A burning sensation or pain when urinating is often seen with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and herpes.
  • Itching or Irritation: This can occur around the penis or genital area and is typically associated with herpes, trichomoniasis, and pubic lice.
  • Painful Swollen Testicles: This symptom can be a sign of epididymitis, which is often caused by chlamydia or gonorrhea in young sexually active men.
  • Sores or Blisters: These may appear on the penis or around the genital area and can be a sign of herpes or syphilis.
  • Rash: A rash in the genital area could occur due to syphilis, herpes, or HIV.
  • Rectal Symptoms: These include rectal pain, discharge, and bleeding, particularly associated with receptive anal intercourse and can be due to gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes.
  • Flu-like Symptoms: Fever, headache, and muscle aches can accompany several STDs, especially during the primary infection phase of HIV or the secondary stage of syphilis.

Less common STD symptoms in men:

  • Sore Throat:
    • This can occur when STDs like gonorrhea or chlamydia are transmitted through oral sex. The infection affects the throat, causing inflammation and soreness that resembles a typical throat infection. It may be accompanied by difficulty swallowing or redness in the throat.
  • Fever:
    • A symptom of systemic infection, fever can appear in the early stages of HIV, secondary syphilis, or as part of the body’s response to other STDs. It often presents alongside other non-specific symptoms like fatigue and muscle aches.
  • Chronic Flu-like Symptoms:
    • These include prolonged episodes of fever, fatigue, and muscle aches, and can be indicative of early HIV infection or acute hepatitis B infection. These symptoms can be vague and often are not immediately linked to an STD.
  • Pain in the Testicles:
    • Pain in the testicles can be a sign of orchitis (inflammation of one or both testicles), commonly caused by infections like mumps, but it can also result from STDs such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, particularly when associated with epididymitis.
  • Swelling of the Testicles:
    • This could be due to infections leading to orchitis or epididymitis. It may occur alongside pain, tenderness, and sometimes redness over the scrotal area.
  • Swelling of the Epididymis (Epididymitis):
    • Commonly caused by chlamydia and gonorrhea in sexually active men. Symptoms include swollen, red, and warm scrotum, pain and tenderness in the area, possibly painful urination, and sometimes accompanied by fever.
  • Swelling of the Urethra (Urethritis):
    • This involves inflammation of the urethra, leading to symptoms like burning sensation during urination and penile discharge. Urethritis can be caused by both bacterial and viral STDs, including gonorrhea and herpes simplex virus.
  • Swelling of Joints (Arthritis):
    • Gonococcal arthritis is a less common complication of gonorrhea, involving pain, redness, and swelling in joints such as knees and elbows. It can occur when the infection spreads through the bloodstream to different parts of the body.
  • Rectal Pain, Discharge, or Bleeding:
    • These symptoms are commonly associated with receiving anal sex and can be caused by STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and herpes affecting the rectal area. They can present as mild discomfort, itching, and pain, to severe inflammation with discharge or bleeding from the rectum.

How Long Does It Take for STD Symptoms to Show?

STD symptoms in men usually take a few days or weeks to develop but can take up to months or years (if there are symptoms at all).Understanding STDs, their risks, and symptoms helps you pay attention to your body and recognize when something’s wrong. That said, the only way to be sure of your STD status is to get tested regularly, especially after unprotected sex.

What are Chlamydia Symptoms in Men?

Chlamydia is one of the most common STDs in men and women. It’s caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and can be spread through oral, vaginal, or anal sex. Most men who have a chlamydia infection show no obvious signs, though some develop symptoms within several weeks of infection.

According to the CDC, if a man experiences chlamydia symptoms, they typically are due to one of two complications:1

  • Urethritis– An infection causing inflammation of the urethra, the tube that allows urine and semen to exit the penis.
    • Symptoms include:
      • Mucousy or milky penile discharge
      • Dysuria, or pain while peeing
      • Stinging or itching in the urethra
      • Irritation at the penis tip
  • Epididymitis– an inflammation of the tube at the back of the testicles, which stores and carries sperm.
    • Symptoms include:
      • Testicular pain
      • Tenderness or swelling of the testicle(s)

What are Gonorrhea Symptoms in Men?

Gonorrhea is another common bacterial STD that is transmitted during oral, vaginal, or anal sex.

Many men with gonorrhea are asymptomatic (showing no symptoms). When a man does show symptoms, they usually begin two to seven days after infection, though it can take as long as 30 days.2

Gonorrhea symptoms in men include:3

  • Pain or burning sensations while peeing
  • White, yellow, or green urethral discharge
  • Testicular or scrotal pain

Herpes Symptoms in Men

Herpes is a common viral infection that is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Herpes may affect the mouth (oral herpes) or genitals (genital herpes). The virus is spread through skin-to-skin contact with the mouth or genitals of someone who has herpes or contact with infected saliva or genital secretions. It can spread through kissing or during oral, vaginal, or anal sex. Any form of sexual contact with or without protection could result in herpes. While HSV-1 usually affects the mouth and HSV-2 usually affects the genitals, both strains can appear either or both locations.

Many men with herpes don’t show any symptoms at all, so they don’t know they have it. When symptoms do occur, it’s common for people to mistake them for other things like pimples or ingrown hairs. The first time a person shows genital herpes symptoms is called the “initial outbreak,” and it can be severe, with subsequent outbreaks being less intense. Often, an initial outbreak occurs 2-12 days after infection, but some people can go months or even years before having an initial outbreak.4

Signs of herpes in men include:

  • Tingling, itching, or burning where the blisters will appear
  • Small blisters that burst and leave painful, open ulcers before eventually scabbing over
    • On the penis or testicles
    • On or around the anus, butt, or thighs
    • On or around the mouth, such as on the lips, tongue, or gums
    • On other parts of the body
  • Burning while peeing if you have sores
  • Difficulty peeing if you have sores that cover your urethra
  • Tenderness or swelling of lymph nodes in the groin
  • Fever
  • Muscle aches

Herpes sores usually heal within a few weeks. Even when an outbreak goes away, the virus stays in your body for life. This means herpes outbreaks come and go. The virus can flare up weeks, months, or even years later and cause sores again.

HIV/AIDS Symptoms in Men

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system, destroying the CD4 cells (also called T cells). It is mainly spread by having anal or vaginal sex or sharing injection drug equipment with someone who has HIV. Over time, HIV weakens the body’s ability to fight off infections and disease.

Men with HIV usually feel healthy for a long time after infection, so they may be unaware they have it. Some men don’t have any symptoms at all during the early stage of HIV. When early HIV symptoms appear, they are usually mild and unspecific, making them easy to overlook, endure, or mistake for something less serious.5

In the first 2-4 weeks after HIV infection, men may experience flu-like symptoms such as:

  • Headaches
  • Fever
  • Skin rash
  • Tiredness
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Muscle and joint aches
  • Thrush, a yeast infection that grows in the mouth, throat, or other parts of the body
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Night sweats

When men have HIV and aren’t on HIV treatment, the virus damages the body’s immune system and eventually progresses to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). When someone has AIDS, the immune system is too weak to defend against infection, making it more likely to develop severe illnesses from opportunistic infections—diseases that a healthy immune system is usually able to fight off.

AIDS symptoms in men include6:

  • Recurring fever
  • Persistent and unexplained tiredness
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Soaking night sweats
  • Memory loss
  • Depression
  • Neurological disorders
  • Skin blotches, rashes, or bumps
  • Sores on the mouth, anus, or genitals

Syphilis Symptoms in Men

Syphilis is a bacterial STD that is spread through direct contact with a syphilitic sore, known as a chancre. These chancres can pop up on or around the genitals, in the vagina, around the anus, in the rectum, or in and around the mouth. This means that syphilis may be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

In men, syphilis symptoms can be difficult to notice. Often, people don’t even know they have syphilis because symptoms can be mild, hidden in hard-to-see places, or easily confused with other things like pimples and rashes. According to the CDC, symptoms usually begin between 10-90 days after infection. Over time, the infection will go through a few different stages, which have varying symptoms. There may be times when someone with syphilis has no symptoms at all.  

Syphilis symptoms in men include 7:

  • One or multiple crater-like chancres (sores)
    • Usually firm, round, and painless, though they can be open and wet
    • Usually appear at the site of infection
  • Rough, red, or reddish-brown rashes on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or other parts of the body
  • Fever
  • Tiredness
  • Sore throat
  • Headaches
  • Muscle aches
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Lesions in the mouth or anus
  • Patchy hair loss

Chancres last 3-6 weeks before healing on their own. Symptoms can come and go, but an untreated infection stays in the body and can damage the nervous system, brain, and other organs. This can lead to serious problems like blindness and paralysis.

Hepatitis Symptoms in Men

Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation and liver damage. It can be either acute (lasting less than 6 months) or chronic (lasting more than 6 months). The most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is spread by ingesting infected fecal matter and during any sexual activity (including oral-anal contact) or when eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B and C can be spread through contact with infected blood, such as sharing needles, or having sex with an infected person.8

Hepatitis symptoms usually don’t appear until a few weeks or months after infection. Often, viral hepatitis is silent, and some men with viral hepatitis don’t show symptoms or know that they are infected. Symptoms can take decades to appear.

Hepatitis symptoms in men include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Tiredness
  • Low fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Muscle or joint aches
  • Abdominal pain
  • Dark urine
  • Jaundice (yellowed skin and eye whites)
  • Light-colored stool

Should You Get Tested?

If you are experiencing symptoms of an STD, it’s important to get tested. Untreated STDs can cause serious health complications, and having sex could spread your STD to other partners. Most STDs are easily curable or treatable when detected early.

Even if you aren’t experiencing symptoms, you can’t tell for sure if you have an STD or not. It’s common for STDs to show no symptoms or have symptoms that go unnoticed.

Regular STD testing is important if you have sex, whether you seem healthy or not. Getting tested is the only way to know if you have an STD, and it’s an important part of looking out for your health and being responsible.

  1. “Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  2. “Gonorrhea Gonococcal Infection (Clap, Drip).” New York State Department of Health.
  3. “Gonorrhea - CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  4. “Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  5. “About HIV/AIDS.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  6. “Symptoms of HIV.”
  7. Syphilis - CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  8. “Sexual Transmission and Viral Hepatitis.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Medically Reviewed by on April 25, 2024

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