STDs and The Law
Partner Notification Laws For STDs
The answer may surprise you.
As a general rule, no, you do not have an obligation to tell your partner if you have a sexually transmitted disease. There aren’t any federal or state laws making it illegal for you to not tell a partner about an STD you may have. Laws on the topic vary from state to state. That being said, it is typically illegal, civilly and criminally, to knowingly or recklessly transmit an STD. Telling someone you have an STD is not the same obligation as knowingly transmitting an STD. Specifically, some states have laws that require you to tell certain people if you are HIV-positive.
Civil (Non-Criminal) Lawsuits
In many states, if you don’t tell a partner about an STD and your partner contracts the disease, you could face a civil lawsuit. STDs often require medical treatment to cure and some, like HIV/AIDS and herpes, are incurable and can require life-long medical treatment. Even if a victim’s damages aren’t high in physical terms, their emotional trauma and humiliation are enough to entitle them to compensation in some states.
In New York, the law states that a person has a duty to warn his or her partner about an STD. Why? Because the law assumes that individuals would not have sex if they knew about the disease beforehand (however, whether that is truly an accurate assumption depends on the person). Therefore, a person not warning his or her sexual partner and transmitting an STD is considered guilty of battery.
Typically, your partner could sue you for negligence or personal injury, and if you lose, you may have to pay monetary damages for your partner’s costs (therapy, medical treatment, loss of time at work, etc.) and injuries.
Criminal charges may ensue if you do not say anything to your partner. In states like California, it is a felony for anyone who knows that they are infected with HIV/AIDS to:
- Engage in unprotected sexual activity with a partner
- Not tell the partner about their HIV status
- Engage in unprotected sexual activity for the purpose of infecting the partner with HIV
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Anyone violating this law faces up to eight years in jail. California’s law, and other state laws as well, makes it a misdemeanor (resulting in a few months in jail, a fine, or both) if the STD is something other than HIV/AIDS.
Worried about transmitting a disease to someone unknowingly and being charged for it? Reach out to us for more information. Also if you want to learn more about partner notification laws for stds, we’re here to help.
Medically Reviewed by Erin Zinkhan, MD, BSBE on January 10, 2024
Author: Nick Corlis
Nick Corlis is a writer, marketer, and designer. He graduated from Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas, with a degree in Digital Communications. Nick is proud to be able to help eliminate the stigma of STD testing through his writing and is always trying to advocate the importance of your sexual health. Before STDcheck, his favorite way to develop his writing skills was by accepting various writing jobs in college and maintaining multiple blogs. Nick wears many hats here at STDcheck, but specifically enjoys writing accurate, well-researched content that is not only informative and relatable but sometimes also contains memes. When not writing, Nick likes to race cars and go-karts, eat Japanese food, and play games on his computer.